The 2300 Day Prophecy
Verse 14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.
This word is used to introduce the judgment in each of the major symbolic prophecies in the book of Daniel:
- Daniel 2:34 "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet."
- Daniel 7:9 "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit."
- Daniel 8:13 Hebrew, "Till when shall be the vision concerning the daily?"
- Daniel 8:14 Unto two thousand and three hundred days."
"Two thousand and three hundred"
In context this is an ordinal, not cardinal, number. (Cardinal numbers are 1, 2, 3, etc.; ordinal numbers are 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.)
Literally, "evening morning." An evening and a morning is one day (Genesis 1:5). The words used here are singular, not plural. It doesn't say, "days," but "day." So to the question, "Until when shall be the vision?" Jesus answers, "Until the 2300th day."
In symbolic time prophecies, each prophetic day represents a year. 2300 prophetic days stands for 2300 actual years, making this the longest time prophecy in all the Bible.
"Then shall the sanctuary be cleansed"
In the 2300th year, the sanctuary would be cleansed.
And that was the end of Daniel's vision. Daniel had no idea what sanctuary they were talking about, or what would be its cleansing. And how can you calculate the 2300th year if you don't know in what year to begin counting? These unanswered questions were of great concern to the prophet. Thus in verse 15 Daniel "sought for the meaning."
In verse 16 the angel Gabriel was commissioned to explain the vision to the prophet. Gabriel began by saying that the vision pertains to "the time of the end." Verse 17. "Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be." Verse 19. In verses 20-25 Gabriel explained the meaning of the Ram which Daniel had been shown in verse 3, of the goat presented in verse 5, of the great horn on that goat, and of the four horns which followed it. He then described the "king of fierce countenance" which would succeed those kingdoms, with its political and spiritual conquests. But when Gabriel arrived at the time portion of the vision, all he said was, "And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true." Verse 26. No explanation of the 2300 days was given. Gabriel then instructed Daniel to "shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days."
Daniel was sick! The very thing he wanted to know was left unexplained. Verse 27 says, "And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it."
Thirteen years passed. Daniel's deep concern for the sanctuary had not lessened. "Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed." What could that mean? The only sanctuary he knew about was the one which lay in ruins in Jerusalem.
Daniel opened the books of Jeremiah, a contemporary prophet who had not been taken to Babylon. There he read that Jerusalem would be desolate for only 70 years (Daniel 9:2). That period was almost up. But would the house of God, the holy sanctuary, not be restored for 2300 years? This was the cause of Daniel's great prayer recorded in Daniel 9:4-19.
"And whiles I was speaking, and praying," wrote Daniel, "even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, . . . touched me. . . . And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding. At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision." Daniel 9:20-23.
In Daniel 9:24-27, Gabriel provided the explanation of the time portion of chapter 8's vision for which Daniel had so long waited. He explained that only the first 70 prophetic weeks (490 years) of the prophecy pertained to the Jews. Jerusalem would be restored and rebuilt, but the ultimate fate of their city and sanctuary was tied to the coming of the Messiah. (Matthew Henry's Commentary on Daniel 9:20-27) - (Adam Clarke's Commentary on Daniel 9:24) - added here by web site author Not Patmos)
But the great contribution of chapter 9 to the prophecy of chapter 8, is the establishment of the starting point for the whole prophetic period. Daniel 9:25 places the beginning of the time prophecy at "the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem." Since Gabriel's announced purpose in chapter 9 was to complete his explanation of chapter 8, the historical anchors he sets must be taken as that explanation. The 2300 days (literally 2300 years) of Daniel 8:14 would commence with the going forth of that historic decree regarding Jerusalem. Thus the "cleansing of the sanctuary" would commence 2300 years from the going forth of that decree.
The commentary on chapter 9 establishes the decree of King Artaxerxes of Persia in 457 B.C. as the specified starting point. The calculations presented there show the "70-week" period to end in the fall of A.D. 34. Remember, there was no year "zero." Subtracting 490 years (70 prophetic weeks) from the total 2300 leaves a difference of 1810 years remaining. Add those 1810 years to the year A.D. 34, and we find that the 2300 years ended in the fall of the year 1844. At that time the "sanctuary" would be "cleansed." (Chart on 457 BC)
But what sanctuary? Certainly not the Jewish temple, for the Jews' period of divine favor ended with the 70 weeks. Their temple was destroyed in A.D. 70.
The answer to this question is found in Hebrews 8 and 9. There we learn that inasmuch as "the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary" (Hebrews 9:1), so there is a "sanctuary, . . . the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man" (Hebrews 8:2), "a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands" (Hebrews 9:11), "in the heavens" (Hebrews 8:1). There Christ ministers as our great High Priest. "For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things." So, all the services of the Old Testament sanctuary were designed as an example and shadow of heavenly things. The sanctuary on earth was an illustration of the sanctuary in heaven. The priests on earth symbolized our heavenly Priest, Jesus.
As we examine the services of the earthly sanctuary, we learn much about Christ's work of saving man. The plan of salvation as illustrated in the sanctuary consisted of three main steps: sacrifice, intercession, and cleansing.
- When an Israelite sinned, he was to bring a lamb to the tabernacle courtyard, confess his sins over the head of the lamb, and offer the animal as a sacrifice to God. This step taught that the wages of sin is death, and that Jesus, the Lamb of God, would one day give His life to pay the penalty for man's sins.
- The tabernacle contained two rooms: the Holy Place, and the Most Holy Place. In those two apartments were conducted the second and third steps in the process of atonement. In the Holy Place, the priests performed a daily work of intercession. This represented the work of Jesus as our Intercessor in heaven, pleading His merits before the Father on our behalf. This work Jesus has performed since His ascension to heaven 40 days after His resurrection.
- The final step of the process was performed once each year (Hebrews 9:7). This was called the "Day of Atonement." It occurred on the 10th day of the 7th month of the Jewish religious calendar (Leviticus 23:27), in the Fall of the year. On this day each year the sanctuary was cleansed. The instructions for this service are recorded in Leviticus chapter 16. This service illustrated the final phase of Christ's atoning ministry, the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary. This is the work of cleansing brought to view in the prophecy of Daniel 8:14.
The Day of Atonement allows for the final disposing of sin. The record of sin is removed from the sanctuary. This involves a work of investigation, a work of judgment. It is the very work described in Daniel 7:9-14 as the pre-advent judgment, and is often called "the investigative judgment."
By parallelling this 2300-day prophecy with the judgment in chapter 7, we determine that the judgment began in the Fall of 1844. But we can be even more specific than that. Each of the ceremonial holy days of ancient Israel met their fulfillment in the plan of salvation on the calendar day of the ceremonial type. For example, Jesus fulfilled what was illustrated by the slaying of the Passover lamb on Passover Day. He was raised to life again on the annual day of the wave sheaf offering, again in fulfillment of the type. The Holy Spirit was poured out on the very day of the year which for centuries had been observed as pointing forward to it - the Day of Pentecost. So, it would be on the 10th day of the 7th month of the Hebrew calendar in the year 1844 that Jesus would begin the work which had been illustrated by the annual Day of Atonement. That date was October 22, 1844.
The work of cleansing, the work of judgment, which was begun in 1844, will continue until every human being has made their final decision whether to serve God or sin, and until that choice is irrevocably recorded in the books of heaven. At that time human probation will close, Jesus will cease His work as Priest, and will put on His kingly garments, and come to take His people home.
The 70 Weeks of Daniel 9:24
Verse 24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
Seventy weeks is 490 days. Utilizing the year-day principle commonly used in prophetic time periods, this is actually 490 literal years.
1 prophetic day = 1 literal year1 prophetic week = 7 literal years70 prophetic weeks = 490 literal years
This principle is recognized by practically all commentators on this passage.
A good translation would be, "Seventy weeks are amputated." (See C. Mervyn Maxwell, God Cares I, p. 206; and Jacques Doukhan, "The Seventy-Weeks of Daniel 9: An Exegetical Study" Andrews University Seminary Studies 17, 1979: 1-22.)
This word indicates that the 70 weeks are "cut off" from the longer time period of the 2300 days.
"Upon thy people"
These 490 years were a probationary period for the Jewish nation. God had suffered long with them, sending them prophet after prophet to lead them back to God, but they were bent on going their own way. Their Babylonian captivity had been designed by God to cure them of their idolatry and backsliding. When they were permitted to return to their own land, they were placed on probation. If they turned from their wicked ways and embraced the truths of the gospel, they would continue to be God's special representatives on earth. But if they failed to meet the conditions of their probation, they would forever lose their distinction as His chosen people. The covenant blessings would be taken from them, "and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof." Matthew 21:43. By their course of action during these 490 years they would determine their own spiritual destiny as a nation.
Verse 25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
"From the going forth"
That is, not the issuing of the decree, but implementation or carrying out of it.
The designated time period would begin with the going forth of official authorization for the restoration and rebuilding of Jerusalem. That authorization went into effect in the late summer or early autumn of 457 B.C. For more information on that, click here.
"Messiah the Prince"
Messiah in Hebrew means "anointed one." The Greek word for Messiah is Christos, or "Christ." Daniel 9:25 and 26 are the only verses in the Old Testament where we find the word "Messiah" (KJV). If the Jews ever expected the coming of someone called the "Messiah," it was because of this passage.
The day after Jesus was baptized, Andrew declared to Simon Peter, "We have found the Messias" (John 1:41). He was referring to "how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost" (Acts 10:38). "And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him" (John 1:32).
Thus Christ, the Messiah, appeared at the time of His baptism and anointing by the Holy Ghost.
"Seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks"
A "score" is twenty. "Threescore" is sixty. So let's add up this period: 7 weeks + 62 weeks = 69 weeks, which is 483 days. Employing the year-day principle, this represents 483 years.
This verse was predicting that from the time of the command to restore and rebuild Jerusalem, until the appearance of the Messiah, there would be 483 years. To check the fulfillment of this prediction, we need to know the year of Jesus' baptism.
Luke 3:1, 2 provides the information necessary for determining the time of John the Baptist's ministry. We need to find a period during which each of the following rulers were in power:
- Pontius Pilate as governor of Judea (A.D. 26-36)
- Herod (Antipas) as tetrarch of Galilee (4 B.C. - A.D. 39)
- Philip as tetrarch of Ituraea (4 B.C. - A.D. 33/34)
- Lysanias as tetrarch of Abilene (Exact dates unknown)
- Annas as high priest (A.D. 6-14)
- Caiaphas as high priest (A.D. 18-36)
- This limits it to the years A.D. 26-34. Now we must calculate "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar" (Luke 3:1).
The sole rule of Tiberius as emperor began when Caesar Augustus died on August 19, A.D. 14. Since Rome was not legally a hereditary monarchy, Tiberius' accession verified the prediction that "he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries." Daniel 11:21.
The method of numbering the years of an emperor's reign differed widely among the various nations which were subject to Rome. Source documents indicate that the non-accession-year system was commonly used in the Near East in the early period of the Roman Empire. In other words, no accession year was counted. As soon as a ruler came to power, his "first" year began, which lasted only until the first New Year's Day. Josephus recorded the reigns of Herod the Great and his sons according to this method.
This means that, according to the most probable Jewish reckoning, Tiberius' first year extended only from August 19 to early October of A.D. 14, at which time the new year began. His fifteenth year, therefore, extended from the fall of A.D. 27 to the fall of A.D. 28. See calculations.
Luke 3:1 therefore assigns the beginning of John the Baptist's ministry to the fall of A.D. 27. We can now check the accuracy of Daniel 9:25.
457 years in B.C. time, plus 27 years in A.D. time, would seem to make a total of 484 years. But that would be the case only if the transition between B.C. time and A.D. time followed the kind of number lines we studied in math class, as illustrated below:
But when B.C. time switched over to A.D. time, there was no year "zero." 1 B.C was followed immediately by A.D. 1, as the diagram below illustrates:
Since there was no year "zero", we must subtract one year from the sum of 484 years which we had gotten by adding 457 B.C. and A.D. 27. That leaves 483 years, exactly 69 prophetic weeks, from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem until the appearance of the Messiah, just as Daniel 9:25 had foretold.
"The street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times"
This is evidently the significance of the seven weeks which precede the threescore and two weeks. It appears that the rebuilding of Jerusalem was completed within the first 7 prophetic weeks (49 years) of the period.
Verse 26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
"And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself"
Here prophecy slated the death of the Messiah to occur sometime after A.D. 27. Certainly His death was "not for himself." It was for you and me.
"And the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary"
This prince is not "Messiah the Prince" mentioned above, but rather the "king of fierce countenance" mentioned in Daniel 8:23. Keep in mind that the purpose of chapter 9 is to provide a clearer explanation of the vision in chapter 8. So this reference in Daniel 9:26 to "the prince that shall come" should direct our thoughts back to the original prophecy. Daniel 8:23 says that he would "destroy the mighty and the holy people." Here in chapter 9 we are told that he "shall destroy the city and the sanctuary."
This "prince that shall come" is also the "he that cometh against him" in Daniel 11:16 who would "stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed." Thus chapters 8, 9, and 11 all make reference to Rome and its destruction of Jerusalem in the year A.D. 70.
Verse 27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
"And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week"
"He", a reference to a singular individual, cannot refer to "the people of the prince that shall come", and must be taken as a reference once again to "Messiah the Prince."
This was the 70th, and final, week of the prophecy, and therefore, the last seven years of Israel's probation. It extended from the fall of A.D. 27 to the fall of A.D. 34. Through the ministry of Jesus Himself, and later of His apostles, God presented His final appeal to the Jewish nation to accept the conditions for continuing as His covenant people. But they crucified the Saviour and denounced His followers. When the 70th week ended in A.D. 34, the Jewish leaders had demonstrated, by their stoning of Stephen, their absolute refusal to accept the terms of God's mercy (Acts 7). Henceforth, the nation of Israel would no longer hold the position of being God's chosen people. From that time on, God has shown no national or ethnic favoritism, "but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him." Acts 10:35.
"And in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease"
The mid-point in the seven fall-to-fall years from A.D. 27 to A.D. 34 came in the spring of A.D. 31.
This verse foretold specifically when the Messiah would be cut off. Every animal sacrifice during Old Testament times had pointed forward symbolically to the substitutionary death of Jesus. And when the true "Lamb of God" (John 1:29) offered His unblemished life on the cross of Calvary, type met antitype, shadow surrendered to substance, and the great sacrificial system, which for thousands of years had foretold this very event, completed its purpose and came to its end. "And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom" (Matthew 27:51), denoting that its earthly services had come to an end. It is said that at the very moment Jesus died, the little Passover lamb under the knife of the priest leaped off the altar and escaped. The death of Jesus caused "the sacrifice and the oblation to cease."
Did Jesus die exactly in the midst of the 70th week? The Gospel of John reveals that Jesus' ministry lasted exactly three and a half years. John mentions three Passovers (John 2:13; 6:4; 12:1) and an unnamed feast of the Jews (John 5:1) which is understood to be a Passover. Jesus was baptized several months prior to the first of these Passovers, and He was crucified at the time of the fourth. Thus His ministry lasted three and a half years. The four Passovers may be assigned to the springs of A.D. 28, 29, 30, and 31. Jesus, therefore, was crucified in the spring of A.D. 31, in the very midst of the 70th week of Daniel 9:27.
Matthew Henry's Commentary on Dan. 9:20-27
Dan 9:20-27We have here the answer that was immediately sent to Daniel's prayer, and it is a very memorable one, as it contains the most illustrious prediction of Christ and gospel-grace that is extant in all the Old Testament. If John Baptist was the morning-star, this was the day-break to the Sun of righteousness, the day-spring from on high. Here is,
I. The time when this answer was given.
1. It was while Daniel was at prayer. This he observed and laid a strong emphasis upon: While I was speaking (Dan_9:20), yea, while I was speaking in prayer (Dan_9:21), before he rose from his knees, and while there was yet more which he intended to say.
(1.) He mentions the two heads he chiefly insisted upon in prayer, and which perhaps he designed yet further to enlarge upon.
[1.] He was confessing sin and lamenting that - “both my sin and the sin of my people Israel.” Daniel was a very great and good man, and yet he finds sin of his own to confess before God and is ready to confess it; for there is not a just man upon earth that does good and sins not, nor that sins and repents not. St. John puts himself into the number of those who deceive themselves if they say that they have no sin, and who therefore confess their sins, 1Jo_1:8. Good men find it an ease to their consciences to pour out their complaints before the Lord against themselves; and that is confessing sin. He also confessed the sin of his people, and bewailed that. Those who are heartily concerned for the glory of God, the welfare of the church, and the souls of men, will mourn for the sins of others as well as for their own.
[2.] He was making supplication before the Lord his God, and presenting it to him as an intercessor for Israel; and in this prayer his concern was for the holy mountain of his God, Mount Zion. The desolations of the sanctuary lay nearer his heart than those of the city and the land; and the repair of that, and the setting up of the public worship of God of Israel again, were the things he had in view, in the deliverance he was preparing for, more than re-establishment of their civil interests. Now,
(2.) While Daniel was thus employed,
[1.] He had a grant made him of the mercy he prayed for. Note, God is very ready to hear prayer and to give an answer of peace. Now was fulfilled what God had spoken Isa_65:24, While they are yet speaking, I will hear. Daniel grew very fervent in prayer, and his affections were very strong, Dan_9:18, Dan_9:19. And, while he was speaking with such fervour and ardency, the angel came to him with a gracious answer. God is well pleased with lively devotions. We cannot now expect that God should send us answers to our prayer by angels, but, if we pray with fervency for that which God has promised, we may by faith take the promise as an immediate answer to the prayer; for he is faithful that has promised.
[2.] He had a discovery made to him of a far greater and more glorious redemption which God would work out for his church in the latter days. Note, Those that would be brought acquainted with Christ and his grace must be much in prayer.
2. It was about the time of the evening oblation, Dan_9:21. The altar was in ruins, and there was no oblation offered upon it, but, it should seem, the pious Jews in their captivity were daily thoughtful of the time when it should have been offered, and at that hour were ready to weep at the remembrance of it, and desired and hoped that their prayer should be set forth before God as incense, and the lifting up of their hands, and their hearts with their hands, should be acceptable in his sight as the evening-sacrifice, Psa_141:2. The evening oblation was a type of the great sacrifice which Christ was to offer in the evening of the world, and it was in the virtue of that sacrifice that Daniel's prayer was accepted when he prayed for the Lord's sake; and for the sake of that this glorious discovery of redeeming love was made to him. The Lamb opened the seals in the virtue of his own blood.
II. The messenger by whom this answer was sent. It was not given him in a dream, nor by a voice from heaven, but, for the greater certainty and solemnity of it, an angel was sent on purpose, appearing in a human shape, to give this answer to Daniel. Observe,
1. Who this angel, or messenger, was; it was the man Gabriel. If Michael the archangel be, as many suppose, no other than Jesus Christ, this Gabriel is the only created angel that is named in scripture. Gabriel signifies the mighty one of God; for the angels are great in power and might, 2Pe_2:11. It was he whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning. Daniel heard him called by his name, and thence learned it (Dan_8:16); and, though then he trembled at his approach, yet he observed him so carefully that now he knew him again, knew him to be the same that he had seen at the beginning, and, being somewhat better acquainted with him, was not now so terrified at the sight of him as he had been at first. When this angel said to Zacharias, I am Gabriel (Luk_1:19), he intended thereby to put him in mind of this notice which he had given to Daniel of the Messiah's coming when it was at a distance, for the confirming of his faith in the notice he was then about to give of it as at the door.
2. The instructions which this messenger received from the Father of lights to whom Daniel prayed (Dan_9:23): At the beginning of thy supplications the word, the commandment, came forth from God. Notice was given to the angels in heaven of this counsel of God, which they were desirous to look into; and orders were given to Gabriel to go immediately and bring the notice of it to Daniel. By this it appears that it was not any thing which Daniel said that moved God, for the answer was given as he began to pray; but God was well pleased with his serious solemn address to the duty, and, in token of that, sent him this gracious message. Or perhaps it was at the beginning of Daniel's supplications that Cyrus's word, or commandment, went forth to restore and to build Jerusalem, that going forth spoken of Dan_9:25. “The thing was done this very day; the proclamation of liberty to the Jews was signed this morning, just when thou wast praying for it;” and now, at the close of this fast-day, Daniel had notice of it, as, at the close of the day of atonement, the jubilee-trumpet sounded to proclaim liberty.
3. The haste he made to deliver his message: He was caused to fly swiftly, Dan_9:21. Angels are winged messengers, quick in their motions, and delay not to execute the orders they receive; they run and return like a flash of lightning, Eze_1:14. But, it should seem, sometimes they are more expeditious than at other times, and make a quicker despatch, as here the angel was caused to fly swiftly; that is, he was ordered and he was enabled to fly swiftly. Angels do their work in obedience to divine command and in dependence upon divine strength. Though they excel in wisdom, they fly swifter or slower as God directs; and, though they excel in power, they fly but as God causes them to fly. Angels themselves are to us what he makes them to be; they are his ministers, and do his pleasure, Psa_103:21.
4. The prefaces or introductions to his message.
(1.) He touched him (Dan_9:21), as before (Dan_8:18), not to awaken him out of sleep as then, but to give him a hint to break off his prayer and to attend to that which he has to say in answer to it. Note, In order to the keeping up of our communion with God we must not only be forward to speak to God, but as forward to hear what he has to say to us; when we have prayed we must look up, must look after our prayers, must set ourselves upon our watch-tower.
(2.) He talked with him (Dan_9:22), talked familiarly with him, as one friend talks with another, that his terror might not make him afraid. He informed him on what errand he came, that he was sent from heaven on purpose with a kind message to him: “I have come to show thee (Dan_9:23), to tell thee that which thou didst not know before.” He had shown him the troubles of the church under Antiochus, and the period of those troubles (Dan_8:19); but now he has greater things to show him, for he that is faithful in a little shall be entrusted with more. “Nay, I have now come forth to give thee skill and understanding (Dan_9:22), not only to show thee these things, but to make thee understand them.”
(3.) He assured him that he was a favourite of Heaven, else he would not have had this intelligence sent him, and he must take it for a favour: “I have come to show thee, for thou art greatly beloved. Thou art a man of desires, acceptable to God, and whom he has a favour for.” Note, Though God loves all his children, yet there are some that are more than the rest greatly beloved. Christ had one disciple that lay in his bosom; and that beloved disciple was he that was entrusted with the prophetical visions of the New Testament, as Daniel was with those of the Old. For what greater token can there be of God's favour to any man than for the secrets of the Lord to be with him? Abraham is the friend of God; and therefore Shall I hide from Abraham that thing which I do? Gen_18:17. Note, Those may reckon themselves greatly beloved of God to whom, and in whom, he reveals his Son. Some observe that the title which this angel Gabriel gives to the Virgin Mary is much the same with this which he here gives to Daniel, as if he designed to put her in mind of it - Thou that art highly favoured; as Daniel, greatly beloved.
(4.) He demands his serious attention to the discovery he was now about to make to him: Therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision, Dan_9:23. This intimates that it was a thing well worthy of his regard, above any of the visions he had been before favoured with. Note, Those who would understand the things of God must consider them, must apply their minds to them, ponder upon them, and compare spiritual things with spiritual. The reason why we are so much in the dark concerning the revealed will of God, and mistake concerning it, is want of consideration. This vision both requires and deserves consideration.
III. The message itself. It was delivered with great solemnity, received no doubt with great attention, and recorded with great exactness; but in it, as is usual in prophecies, there are things dark and hard to be understood. Daniel, who understood by the book of the prophet Jeremiah the expiration of the seventy years of the captivity, is now honourably employed to make known to the church another more glorious release, which that was but a shadow of, at the end of another seventy, not years, but weeks of years. He prayed over that prophecy, and received this in answer to that prayer. He had prayed for his people and the holy city - that they might be released, that it might be rebuilt; but God answers him above what he was able to ask or think. God not only grants, but outdoes, the desires of those that fear him, Psa_21:4.
1. The times here determined are somewhat hard to be understood. In general, it is seventy weeks, that is, seventy times seven years, which makes just 490 years. The great affairs that are yet to come concerning the people of Israel, and the city of Jerusalem, will lie within the compass of these years.
(1.) These years are thus described by weeks,
[1.] In conformity to the prophetic style, which is, for the most part, abstruse, and out of the common road of speaking, that the things foretold might not lie too obvious.
[2.] To put an honour upon the division of time into weeks, which is made purely by the sabbath day, and to signify that that should be perpetual.
[3.] With reference to the seventy years of the captivity; as they had been so long kept out of the possession of their own land, so, being now restored to it they should seven times as long be kept in the possession of it. So much more does God delight in showing mercy than in punishing. The land had enjoyed its sabbaths, in a melancholy sense, seventy years, Lev_26:34. But now the people of the Lord shall, in a comfortable sense, enjoy their sabbaths seven times seventy years, and in them seventy sabbatical years, which makes ten jubilees. Such proportions are there in the disposals of Providence, that we might see and admire the wisdom of him who has determined the times before appointed.
(2.) The difficulties that arise about these seventy weeks are,
[1.] Concerning the time when they commence and whence they are to be reckoned. They are here dated from the going forth of the commandments to restore and to build Jerusalem, Dan_9:25. I should most incline to understand this of the edict of Cyrus mentioned Ezr_1:1, for by it the people were restored; and, though express mention be not made there of the building of Jerusalem, yet that is supposed in the building of the temple, and was foretold to be done by Cyrus, Isa_44:28. He shall say to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built. That was, both in prophecy and in history, the most famous decree for the building of Jerusalem; nay, it should seem, this going forth of the commandment (which may as well be meant of God's command concerning it as of Cyrus's) is the same with that going forth of the commandment mentioned Dan_9:23, which was at the beginning of Daniel's supplications. And it looks very graceful that the seventy weeks should begin immediately upon the expiration of the seventy years. And there is nothing to be objected against this but that by this reckoning the Persian monarchy, from the taking of Babylon by Cyrus to Alexander's conquest of Darius, lasted but 130 years; whereas, by the particular account given of the reigns of the Persian emperors, it is computed that it continued 230 years. So Thucydides, Xenophon, and others reckon. those who fix it to that first edict set aside these computations of the heathen historians as uncertain and not to be relied upon. But others, willing to reconcile them, begin the 490 years, not at the edict of Cyrus (Ezr_1:1), but at the second edict for the building of Jerusalem, issued out by Darius Nothus above 100 years after, mentioned Ezra 6. Others fix on the seventh year of Artaxerxes Mnemon, who sent Ezra with a commission, Ezr_7:8-12. The learned Mr. Poole, in his Latin Synopsis, has a vast and most elaborate collection of what has been said, pro and con, concerning the different beginnings of these weeks, with which the learned may entertain themselves.
[2.] Concerning the termination of them; and here likewise interpreters are not agreed. Some make them to end at the death of Christ, and think the express words of this famous prophecy will warrant us to conclude that from this very hour when Gabriel spoke to Daniel, at the time of the evening oblation, to the hour when Christ died, which was towards evening too, it was exactly 490 years; and I am willing enough to be of that opinion. But others think, because it is said that in the midst of the weeks (that is, the last of the seventy weeks) he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, they end three years and a half after the death of Christ, when the Jews having rejected the gospel, the apostles turned to the Gentiles. But those who make them to end precisely at the death of Christ read it thus, “He shall make strong the testament to the many; the last seven, or the last week, yea, half that seven, or half that week (namely, the latter half, the three years and a half which Christ spent in his public ministry), shall bring to an end sacrifice and oblation.” Others make these 490 years to end with the destruction of Jerusalem, about thirty-seven years after the death of Christ, because these seventy weeks are said to be determined upon the people of the Jews and the holy city; and much is said here concerning the destruction of the city and the sanctuary.
[3.] Concerning the division of them into seven weeks, and sixty-two weeks, and one week; and the reason of this is as hard to account for as any thing else. In the first seven weeks, or forty-nine years, the temple and city were built; and in the last single week Christ preached his gospel, by which the Jewish economy was taken down, and the foundations were laid of the gospel city and temple, which were to be built upon the ruins of the former.
(3.) But, whatever uncertainty we may labour under concerning the exact fixing of these times, there is enough clear and certain to answer the two great ends of determining them.
[1.] It did serve them to raise and support the expectations of believers. There were general promises of the coming of the Messiah made to the patriarchs; the preceding prophets had often spoken of him as one that should come, but never was the time fixed for his coming until now. And, though there might be so much doubt concerning the date of this reckoning that they could not ascertain the time just to a year, yet by the light of this prophecy they were directed about what time to expect him. And we find, accordingly, that when Christ came he was generally looked for as the consolation of Israel, and redemption in Jerusalem by him, Luk_2:25, Luk_2:38. There were those that for this reason thought the kingdom of God should immediately appear (Luk_19:11), and some think it was this that brought a more than ordinary concourse of people to Jerusalem, Act_2:5.
[2.] It does serve still to refute and silence the expectations of unbelievers, who will not own that Jesus is he who should come, but still look for another. This prediction should silence them, and will condemn them; for, reckon these seventy weeks from which of the commandments to build Jerusalem we please, it is certain that they have expired above 1500 years ago; so that the Jews are for ever without excuse, who will not own that the Messiah has come when they have gone so far beyond their utmost reckoning for his coming. But by this we are confirmed in our belief of the Messiah's being come, and that our Jesus is he, that he came just at the time prefixed, a time worthy to be had in everlasting remembrance.
2. The events here foretold are more plain and easy to be understood, at least to us now. Observe what is here foretold,
(1.) Concerning the return of the Jews now speedily to their own land, and their settlement again there, which was the thing that Daniel now principally prayed for; and yet it is but briefly touched upon here in the answer to his prayer. Let this be a comfort to the pious Jews, that a commandment shall go forth to restore and to build Jerusalem, Dan_9:25. And the commandment shall not be in vain; for though the times will be very troublous, and this good work will meet with great opposition, yet it shall be carried on, and brought to perfection at last. The street shall be built again, as spacious and splendid as ever it was, and the walls, even in troublous times. Note, as long as we are here in this world we must expect troublous times, upon some account or other. Even when we have joyous times we must rejoice with trembling; it is but a gleam, it is but a lucid interval of peace and prosperity; the clouds will return after the rain. When the Jews are restored in triumph to their own land, yet there they must expect troublous times, and prepare for them. But this is our comfort, that God will carry on his own work, will build up his Jerusalem, will beautify it, will fortify it, even in troublous times; nay, the troublousness of the times may by the grace of God contribute to the advancement of the church. The more it is afflicted the more it multiplies.
(2.) Concerning the Messiah and his undertaking. The carnal Jews looked for a Messiah that could deliver them from the Roman yoke and give them temporal power and wealth, whereas they were here told that the Messiah should come upon another errand, purely spiritual, and upon the account of which he should be the more welcome.
[1.] Christ came to take away sin, and to abolish that. Sin had made a quarrel between God and man, had alienated men from God and provoked God against man; it was this that put dishonour upon God and brought misery upon mankind; this was the great mischief-maker. He that would do God a real service, and man a real kindness, must be the destruction of this. Christ undertakes to be so, and for this purpose he is manifested, to destroy the works of the devil. He does not say to finish your transgressions and your sins, but transgression and sin in general, for he is the propitiation not only for our sins, that are Jews, but for the sins of the whole world. He came, First, To finish transgression, to restrain it (so some), to break the power of it, to bruise the head of that serpent that had done so much mischief, to take away the usurped dominion of that tyrant, and to set up a kingdom of holiness and love in the hearts of men, upon the ruins of Satan's kingdom there, that, where sin and death had reigned, righteousness and life through grace might reign. When he died he said, It is finished; sin has now had its death-wound given it, like Samson's, Let me die with the Philistines. Animamque in vulnere ponit - He inflicts the wound and dies. Secondly, To make an end of sin, to abolish it, that it may not rise up in judgment against us, to obtain the pardon of it, that it may not be our ruin, to seal up sins (so the margin reads it), that they may not appear or break out against us, to accuse and condemn us, as, when Christ cast the devil into the bottomless pit, he set a seal upon him, Rev_20:3. When sin is pardoned it is sought for and not found, as that which is sealed up. Thirdly, To make reconciliation for iniquity, as by a sacrifice, to satisfy the justice of God and so to make peace and bring God and man together, not only as an arbitrator, or referee, who only brings the contending parties to a good understanding one of another, but as a surety, or undertaker, for us. He is not only the peace-maker, but the peace. He is the atonement.
[2.] He came to bring in an everlasting righteousness. God might justly have made an end of the sin by making an end of the sinner; but Christ found out another way, and so made an end of sin as to save the sinner from it, by providing a righteousness for him. We are all guilty before God, and shall be condemned as guilty, if we have not a righteousness wherein to appear before him. Had we stood, our innocency would have been our righteousness, but, having fallen, we must have something else to plead; and Christ has provided us a plea. The merit of his sacrifice is our righteousness; with this we answer all the demands of the law; Christ has died, yea, rather, has risen again. Thus Christ is the Lord our righteousness, for he is made of God to us righteousness, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. By faith we apply this to ourselves and plead it with God, and our faith is imputed to us for righteousness, Rom_4:3, Rom_4:5. This is an everlasting righteousness, for Christ, who is our righteousness, and the prince of our peace, is the everlasting Father. It was from everlasting in the counsels of it and will be to everlasting in the consequences of it. The application of it was from the beginning, for Christ was the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world; and it will be to the end, for he is able to save to the uttermost. It is of everlasting virtue (Heb_10:12); it is the rock that follows us to Canaan.
[3.] He came to seal up the vision and prophecy, all the prophetical visions of the Old Testament, which had reference to the Messiah. He sealed them up, that is, he accomplished them, answered to them to a tittle; all things that were written in the law, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning the Messiah, were fulfilled in him. Thus he confirmed the truth of them as well as his own mission. He sealed them up, that is, he put an end to that method of God's discovering his mind and will, and took another course by completing the scripture-canon in the New Testament, which is the more sure word of prophecy than that by vision, 2Pe_1:19; Heb_1:1.
[4.] He came to anoint the most holy, that is, himself, the Holy One, who was anointed (that is, appointed to his work and qualified for it) by the Holy Ghost, that oil of gladness which he received without measure, above his fellows; or to anoint the gospel-church, his spiritual temple, or holy place, to sanctify and cleanse it, and appropriate it to himself (Eph_5:26), or to consecrate for us a new and living way into the holiest, by his own blood (Heb_10:20), as the sanctuary was anointed, Exo_30:25, etc. He is called Messiah (Dan_9:25, Dan_9:26), which signifies Christ - Anointed (Joh_1:41), because he received the unction both for himself and for all that are his.
[5.] In order to all this the Messiah must be cut off, must die a violent death, and so be cut off from the land of the living, as was foretold, Isa_53:8. Hence, when Paul preaches the death of Christ, he says that he preached nothing but what the prophet said should come, Act_26:22, Act_26:23. And thus it behoved Christ to suffer. He must be cut off, but not for himself - not for any sin of his own, but, as Caiaphas prophesied, he must die for the people, in our stead and for our good, - not for any advantage of his own (the glory he purchased for himself was no more than the glory he had before, Joh_17:4, Joh_17:5); no; it was to atone for our sins, and to purchase life for us, that he was cut off.
[6.] He must confirm the covenant with many. He shall introduce a new covenant between God and man, a covenant of grace, since it had become impossible for us to be saved by a covenant of innocence. This covenant he shall confirm by his doctrine and miracles, by his death and resurrection, by the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's supper, which are the seals of the New Testament, assuring us that God is willing to accept us upon gospel-terms. His death made his testament of force, and enabled us to claim what is bequeathed by it. He confirmed it to the many, to the common people; the poor were evangelized, when the rulers and Pharisees believed not on him. Or, he confirmed it with many, with the Gentile world. The New Testament was not (like the Old) confined to the Jewish church, but was committed to all nations. Christ gave his life a ransom for many.
[7.] He must cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease. By offering himself a sacrifice once for all he shall put an end to all the Levitical sacrifices, shall supercede them and set them aside; when the substance comes the shadows shall be done away. He causes all the peace-offerings to cease when he has made peace by the blood of his cross, and by it confirmed the covenant of peace and reconciliation. By the preaching of his gospel to the world, with which the apostles were entrusted, he took men off from expecting remission by the blood of bulls and goats, and so caused the sacrifice and oblation to cease. The apostle in his epistle to the Hebrews shows what a better priesthood, altar, and sacrifice, we have now than they had under the law, as a reason why we should hold fast our profession.
(3.) Concerning the final destruction of Jerusalem, and of the Jewish church and nation; and this follows immediately upon the cutting off of the Messiah, not only because it was the just punishment of those that put him to death, which was the sin that filled up the measure of their iniquity and brought ruin upon them, but because, as things were, it was necessary to the perfecting of one of the great intentions of his death. He died to take away the ceremonial law, quite to abolish that law of commandments, and to vacate the obligation of it. But the Jews would not be persuaded to quit it; still they kept it up with more zeal than ever; they would hear no talk of parting with it; they stoned Stephen (the first Christian martyr) for saying that Jesus should change the customs which Moses delivered them (Act_6:14); so that there was no way to abolish the Mosaic economy but by destroying the temple, and the holy city, and the Levitical priesthood, and that whole nation which so incurably doted on them. This was effectually done in less than forty years after the death of Christ, and it was a desolation that could never be repaired to this day. And this is it which is here largely foretold, that the Jews who returned out of captivity might not be overmuch lifted up with the rebuilding of their city and temple, because in process of time they would be finally destroyed, and not as now for seventy years only, but might rather rejoice in hope of the coming of the Messiah, and the setting up of his spiritual kingdom in the world, which should never be destroyed. Now,
[1.] It is here foretold that the people of the prince that shall come shall be the instruments of this destruction, that is, the Roman armies, belonging to a monarchy yet to come (Christ is the prince that shall come, and they are employed by him in this service; they are his armies, Mat_22:7), or the Gentiles (who, though now strangers, shall become the people of the Messiah) shall destroy the Jews.
[2.] That the destruction shall be by war, and the end of that war shall be this desolation determined. The wars of the Jews with the Romans were by their own obstinacy made very long and very bloody, and they issued at length in the utter extirpation of that people.
[3.] That the city and sanctuary shall in a particular manner be destroyed and laid quite waste. Titus the Roman general would fain have saved the temple, but his soldiers were so enraged against the Jews that he could not restrain them from burning it to the ground, that this prophecy might be fulfilled.
[4.] That all the resistance that shall be made to this destruction shall be in vain: The end of it shall be with a flood. It shall be a deluge of destruction, like that which swept away the old world, and which there will be no making head against.
[5.] That hereby the sacrifice and oblation shall be made to cease. And it must needs cease when the family of the priests was so extirpated, and the genealogies of it were so confounded, that (they say) there is no man in the world that can prove himself of the seed of Aaron.
[6.] that there shall be an overspreading of abominations, a general corruption of the Jewish nation and an abounding of iniquity among them, for which it shall be made desolate, 1Th_2:16. Or it is rather to be understood of the armies of the Romans, which were abominable to the Jews (they could not endure them), which overspread the nation, and by which it was made desolate; for these are the words which Christ refers to, Mat_24:15, When you shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel, stand in the holy place, then let those who shall be in Judea flee, which is explained Luk_21:20, When you shall see Jerusalem encompassed with armies then flee.
[7.] That the desolation shall be total and final: He shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, that is, he shall make it completely desolate. It is a desolation determined, and it will be accomplished to the utmost. And when it is made desolate, it should seem, there is something more determined that is to be poured upon the desolate (Dan_9:27), and what should that be but the spirit of slumber (Rom_11:8, Rom_11:25), that blindness which has happened to Israel until the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in? And then all Israel shall be saved.